Fog Computing

Amrit Poudel

Software Testing Engineer

The Internet of Things (IoT) is generating an unprecedented volume and variety of data. But by the time the data makes its way to the cloud for analysis, the opportunity to act on it might be gone.Here, we explain a new model for analyzing and acting on IoT data. It is called either edge computing or Fog computing

Fog computing or fog networking, also known as fogging, is an architecture that uses one or more collaborative end-user clients or near-user edge devices to carry out a substantial amount of

  • Storage (rather than stored primarily in cloud data centers),

  • Communication (rather than routed over the internet backbone),

  • Control, configuration,

  • Measurement and management (rather than controlled primarily by network gateways such as those in the LTE core network).

Capitalizing on the IoT requires a new kind of infrastructure. Today’s cloud models are not designed for the volume, variety, and velocity of data that the IoT generates. Moving all data from these things to the cloud for analysis would require vast amounts of bandwidth.Compounding the challenge, IoT devices generate data constantly, and often analysis must be very rapid.

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Handling the volume, variety, and velocity of IoT data requires a new computing model which can minimize  latency, conserve network bandwidth, address security concerns, operate reliably and move data to the best place for processing.

Traditional cloud computing architectures do not meet all of these requirements. It is because, cloud servers communicate only with IP, not the countless other protocols used by IoT devices. The ideal place to analyze most IoT data is near the devices that produce and act on that data requires new computing model.

So, In 2012, the need to extend cloud computing with fog computing emerged, in order to cope with huge number of IoT devices and big data volumes for real-time low-latency applications. On November 19, 2015, Cisco Systems, ARM Holdings, Dell, Intel, Microsoft, and Princeton University, founded the OpenFog Consortium, to promote interests and development in fog computing.

The fog extends the cloud to be closer to the things that produce and act on IoT data . These devices, called fog nodes, which can be deployed anywhere with a network connection: on a factory floor, on top of a power pole, alongside a runway track, in a vehicle, or on camera of drone.  Any device with computing, storage, and network connectivity can be a fog node.

In fog networking, IOT applications are either ported or written at the network edge for fog nodes. Now, the fog node closest to the network edge take the data from IoT devices. Here, the fog IOT applications directs different types of data to the optimal place for analysis.The most critical and time sensitive data is analyzed on the fog node closest to the things generating the data. Then, data that can waits seconds or minutes for action is passed along to an aggregation node for analysis and action. Now finally, data that is less time sensitive is passed to the cloud for historical analysis.
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This ultimately helps to obtain following advantages like:

  • Greater business agility,

  • Better security

  • Deeper insights with privacy control and

  • Lower operating expenses on business.

So, that organizations that adopt fog computing gain deeper and faster insights,leading to increased business agility, higher service levels, and improved safety.